What are delegates?
Delegates are object that refer to an method. Normally we refer to objects, however referring to an object isn’t any different from referring a method they too have physical location in memory.
Why use delegate?
One delegate can be used to call different methods during runtime of a program by simply changing the method to which the delegate refers.
and Delegates Support Events.
delegate ret-type name(paramerter-list);
e.g. delegate string MyDelegate();
The MyDelegate can call any method whose return type is string and accepts no parameter. It can be instance method or a static method.
delegate string MyDelegate(String s);
static string GetNameLower(String s)
return s.ToLower() ;
static string GetNameUpper(string s)
static void Main(string args)
MyDelegate myD = new MyDelegate(GetNameLower); //or myD=GetNameLower
string s1 = myD(“Hi Nishant”);
myD = new MyDelegate(GetNameUpper); //or myD=GetNameUpper
string s2 = myD(“Hi Nishant”);
We can have chain of methods that will be called automatically when a delegate is invoked.
For this we will use += operator to add methods to chain and -= to remvove a method.
If delegate returns value than value returned by the last method becomes the return value of entire deleagation invocation. Thus a delegate making use of multicasting will have void as return type.
delegate void MyDelegate();
static void GetNameLower()
static void GetNameUpper()
static void Main(string args)
MyDelegate myD = GetNameLower;
myD(); //invoking the delegate
Static keyword can be applied to
Class, field, method, properties, operator, event and constructors.
Static member belongs to the class and not to any object of the class.
They can be used without creating the instance of the class.
For e.g. Static Void Main()
It is called by the operating system on program execution
To access the static member we’ll use
When a variable is declared as static internally what happens is that all the instances of the class share the same static variable. A static variable is initialized when its class is loaded. If not
initialized explicitly then
it is initialized to zero for numeric variable
null in case of object references
false for boolean
StaticMethod– they can only contain static member and call other static method.
If we need to access them than it can be done through the object of that class
public static void getNameThroughStatic(Game g)
g.getGameName(); // accessing static method
When to use them?
Well we can use them when we need to maintain information applicable to the entire class
suppose we have a class Employees there we can have a static count variable to keep track of no of employees.
static in count=0;
What are Static Constructor?
They can be used to initialize the static variables.
They are called automatically and before the instance constructor (if called any).
for above class
static Employees() // no other access modifiers for them
What are static Classes?
A class whose objects can’t be created and which can only have static members. They can’t be inherited as well.
They can have static constructor
Why use static Classes?
It can be used to group related static method.
Hi to add rows and columns to Gridveiw dynamically what
we will do is that
1) Create a DataTable object to which than we will bind the GridView
DataTable dt=new DataTable();
2) IF you need two columns than create two DataColumn object
DataColumn dCol1=new DataColumn(FirstC, typeof(System.String)); // string FirstC=”column1″
DataColumn dCol2=new DataColumn(SecondC, typeof(System.String)); // string SecondC=”column2″
Add it to the table
3)Run the loop for as many rows you want to add.
// say you want to add two rows
DataRow row1 = dt.NewRow();
row1 [FirstC] = “One”;
row1 [SecondC] =”Two”
Now iterate through each datacolumn and create a BoundField foreach column
foreach (DataColumn col in dt.Columns)
BoundField bField = new BoundField
bField.DataField = col.ColumnName;
bField.HeaderText = col.ColumnName;
GridView1.DataSource = dt;
//Bind the datatable with the GridView.
The internal access modifier can be applied to
Classes and it’s member
Structure and it’s member
This way it is available to all the files within that assembly.
Particularly useful when creating software components.
It can be used in conjunction with protected to produce
protected internal access modifier
It can be applied only to
It is available withing it’s own assembly or to derived types.
Say if we create an Class Library which has a class like
public class MyClass
And then you create
Now we create new project say a windows application and add a refrence to that dll
And can create the object of that class lik
MyClass my=new MyClass();
this works fine,
now if we modify the definition of the class by replacing public with internal and update the assembly
internal class MyClass
This time if we try to create the object of MyClass which is inside our referenced assembly
The error which we will get is
MyClass is inaccessible due to its protection level.
That’s why they are basically used in component development so that any other class couldn’t be able to access it i.e. create objects of it.
Value types (primitive type) ( simple type) are variable that contain their data directly.
They don’t contain reference to data stored elsewhere in memory.
Instances of values types are stored in an area of memory called stack where it is easy for the runtime to perform CRUD operation with minimal overhead.
Now what exactly is STACK based memory-
It is regions of memory where data is added or removed in a Last-In-First-Out manner.
each thread has a reserved region of memory referred to as its stack.
When a function executes, it may add some of its state data to the top of the stack; when the function exits it is responsible for removing that data from the stack. If a region of memory lies on the thread’s stack, that memory is said to have been allocated on the stack.
Thus stack allocation is very simple and typically faster.
Another advantage is that memory on the stack is automatically reclaimed when the function exits, which can be convenient for the programmer.
A disadvantage of stack based memory allocation is that a thread’s stack size can be as small as a few dozen kilobytes. Allocating more memory on the stack than is available can result in a crash .
Another disadvantage is that the memory stored on the stack is automatically deallocated when the function that created it returns, and thus the function must copy the data if they should be available to other parts of the program after it returns.
The are around 300 value types in .NET Framework. Most frequently used one are
System.SByte, Byte,Int16,Int32,UInt32,Inte64,Single,Double,decmal,char, boolean, datetime
Follow the following steps for creating subscriptions
1. Log into the reporting server: http://crmServer/reports
2. Click on _MSCRM Subscriptions Folder
3. Click on the report for which the subscription needs to be created
4. Click on the Subscriptions Tab
5. Click on New Subscription
6. Under Report Delivery Options, choose ‘Report Server File Share’
7. Provide details for the File Name as mentioned below
8. Provide the path of the folder where you want to save this subscription. This folder should be in the root directory of the reporting server. The person who is creating the subscription should have Read/Write Access to this folder.
For Ex: In the development server, a folder called ‘SubscribedReports’ has been created in the C drive. If a person called DomainName\XYZ’ is creating the subscription, then DomainName\XYZ’ should have write access to the ‘Subscribed Reports’ folder. The path to be provided in the reporting server subscription page would be ‘\\.’
9. Choose the render format : PDF format
10. Provide the Username/Password.
11. Under Subscription Processing Options, click on the button ‘Select Schedule’
12. Choose the scheduling date and time and then click on OK – Scheduling Every Monday at 10.00AM for all the reports
13. Under Report Parameter Values, choose the parameters that would be applicable for the specified subscription.
14. When all of the above have been completed, click on OK.
To find the opportunity record shared with a particular user in Microsoft Dynamics Crm
select o.name as OpportunityName,p.AccessRightsMask from opportunityBase o
left join PrincipalObjectAccess
p on p.objectid=o.opportunityid left join systemuser u
on p.principalid=u.systemuserid where u.fullname=’nishant r’
AccessRightsMask values and what they mean
AppendAccess 4 – Specifies the right to append the specified object to another object.
AppendToAccess 8 – Specifies the right to append another object to the specified object.
AssignAccess 0x80 -Specifies the right to assign the specified object to another security principal.
CreateAccess 0x10 -Specifies the right to create an instance of the object type.
DeleteAccess 0x20 -Specifies the right to delete the specified object.
ReadAccess 1 -Specifies the right to read the specified type of object.
ShareAccess 0x40 -Specifies the right to share the specified object.
WriteAccess 2 – Specifies the right to update (write to) the specified object.
3– Read + Write
65539– Read + Write + Delete
851991– All the rights
262145– Share+Read etc…
फिर मिलते हें
Hi today we will see how to create wizard like window application in .NET 2.0.
1) Create a new window application.
2) Add three forms in it. I have named the form as FirstStep, SecondStep and ThirdStep.
3) In FirstStep add two button – Next and Cancel
4) In SecondStep add three button- Previous, Next and Cancel
5) In ThirdStep add two button- Previous and Cancel
6) Than add a new class file – name it WizardData.cs
7) Add following code to it
// this wizardData class will have a enumeration and a property to display the appropriate form
public class WizardData
public enum wizardForms
FirstStep =1, SecondStep=2, ThirdStep=3,Cancel =99
private wizardForms formToShow;
public wizardForms FormToShow
8. Then go to program.cs and modify it in the following manner
static void Main()
//Replace Application.Run(…. ) with MyInitialization() – custom function
9) The code for MyInitialization() goes like this
// Create instances of all the forms to be displayed
private static void MyInitialization()
WizardData wData = new WizardData();
wData.FormToShow = WizardData.wizardForms.FirstStep;
Form step1 = new FirstStep(wData);
Form step2 = new SecondStep(wData);
Form step3 = new ThirdStep(wData);while (wData.FormToShow != WizardData.wizardForms.Cancel)
}10) Now go to your FirstStep Form. Replace the constructor with this
public FirstStep(WizardData wd)
this.wData = wd;
11) In the cancel button and next button click event handler write the following code
private void btnNext_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
// to show the SecondStep form
wData.FormToShow = WizardData.wizardForms.SecondStep;
}private void btnCancel_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
wData.FormToShow = WizardData.wizardForms.Cancel;
12) Repeat the same step 11 for SecondStep and ThirdStep form.
for previous button click event handler add the following codeprivate void btnPrevious_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
// replace the wizardForm.(…) with appropriate form to be displayed
wData.FormToShow = WizardData.wizardForms.FirstStep;
To do this,
1) Add a new item global.asax in your website.
2) Put the following code in it
void Application_Start(object sender, EventArgs e)
// Code that runs on application startup
Application[“UsersOnline”] = 0;
void Session_Start(object sender, EventArgs e)
// Code that runs when a new session is started
Application[“UsersOnline”] = (int)Application[“UsersOnline”] + 1;
void Session_End(object sender, EventArgs e)
// Code that runs when a session ends.
// Note: The Session_End event is raised only when the sessionstate mode
// is set to InProc in the Web.config file. If session mode is set to StateServer
// or SQLServer, the event is not raised.
Application[“UsersOnline”] = (int)Application[“UsersOnline”] – 1;
3) In the webpage where the no of online users have to be displayed make use of this application object
protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
Response.Write(“The no of users online are ” + Application[“UsersOnline”].ToString());
These are the steps i followed
1) Created a new windows application.
2) Added reference to System.DirectoryServices dll
3) Added a textbox(where the email id will be entered) and a button in the form.
4) On btnClick this is the code i wrote
we use the DirectorySearcher class to query the directory and read the attributes of the objects found
DirectorySearcher Dsearch = new DirectorySearcher();
EmailID = txtEmailID.Text;
The filter in an LDAP query restricts the objects that the search will return. It is the equivalent of the WHERE clause
Dsearch.Filter = “(&(objectCategory=person)(sAMAccountName=*)(mail=”+EmailID+”))”;
objectCategory=This attribute is meant to be used to group common types of objects together so that we can search across all of them. Both user and contact classes share the same objectCategory value of person.
sAMAccountName =To separate users from contacts efficiently we can make user of sAMAccountName attribute
mail =Finally the mail attribute is the attribute which we looking for. Setting it to the value entered in the textbox by the user
SearchResult sResult = Dsearch.FindOne();
A SearchResult represents a single item from a result set.The FindOne method returns a single SearchResult, representing the first result in the underlying result set. Internally, this method is calling the FindAll method and returning the first SearchResult from the SearchResultCollection
if (sResult != null)
txtInfo.Content = “This email id already existing”;
txtInfo.Content = “This email id is not found”;